A) Harvesting Maturity
B) Physiological Maturity
C) Commercial or Horticultural Maturity
The harvest maturity of vegetable depends upon the purposes for which it is harvested. For local market and for processing, fully coloured tomato fruits are harvested. However, for a distant market fruit which have started developing colour are harvested. The post-harvest quality and storage life of fruit appear to be controlled by the maturity. If the fruits are harvested at a proper stage of the maturity the quality of fruit is excellent. Poor quality and uneven ripening are caused by early harvesting and late harvesting result in extremely poor shelf life. It is imperative that the fruit should be at the right stage of the maturity with no of physical damage. Various Maturity Indices such as number of damage from fruit set, visual indicators, size, shape, colour, appearances, texture, lenticel number, specific gravity starch contain soluble solids, sugar, acid ratio and oil content are used to determine maturity of fruits.
1. In a physiological sense, maturity refers to the attainment of final stage of biological function by a plant part of plant as a whole.
Example: A French bean pod of okra is at its physiological maturity when seeds are fully developed and the pod is which will dehisce with little pressure.
2. It is the stage of development of any plant organ at its maximum size and growth.
3. The physiological maturity is judged of measure by rate of respiration and sugar: acid ratio.
4. It always followed by senescence.
Commercial or Horticultural Maturity:
It is the stage of development, when plant or plant part possesses the prerequisites the utilization by consumer for particular purpose.
1. It is a stage of fruit and vegetable at which consumer wants the fruit and vegetable or fruit and vegetable require by market. The horticultural maturity of fruits and vegetables depends upon the purpose for which it is harvested.
Example: The French bean pod of okra pod is matured when it is tender with maximum size, as per horticultural maturity.
2. It is a stage appears at any time between development and growth of any plant upon fruit.
3. It can be predicted by using different terminology like premature, mature and over mature.
4. There is no necessity of senescence.
Matured fruits are having completed natural growth and development.
Non- climateric Fruits
Apricot, Almond, Banana, Custard apple, fig, guava, Mango, Sapota, Papaya, Muskmelon, Phalsa, Tomato, Watermelon.
Cashew, Cherry, Cucumber, Brinjal, Grapes, Ber, Lemon, Oranges, Pomegranate, Pepper , Cocoa.
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