|1||What are the temperature requirements of the citrus fruits?||Citrus fruits required optimum 25-35 oC temperature range for their best growth, but it can bear up to 40 oC.|
|2||Where we can grow the citrus fruits successfully?||Citrus fruits can grow successfully in the Sorgoda, Faisalabad, Balowal, Mandibahwaldin, T.B Sing, Vahari, Khanawal regions.|
|3||What type of the citrus we can grow in the mountainous area?||You can grow citrus fruits like Orange, Grapefruit successfully.|
|4||Are we growing the citrus fruits in desert area?||Yes, we can grow of different varieties of grapefruit like Star Ruby because it can bear the temperature up to the 50oC.|
Selection of soil and preparation good seed
|1||What kind of soil is required for the citrus fruits?||Citrus fruits can grow in all soil types. But it never grows in the Sandy, stony and waterlogged soils.|
|2||How we grow the citrus fruits in the silty soils?||For this purpose you dig the pit 3 by 3 ft. And 3 ft. Depth and add 1/3 soil of the upper portion, 1/3 Farm Yard Manure and 1/3 Silt.|
|3||If I want to grow the citrus in the new area, then what I do?||For this purpose you contacted the near FFC Lab. For soil analysis. If your soil has no problem, then you can grow any suitable variety according to your market and climate.|
Varieties of Citrus
|1||What are the most important varieties of grapefruits?||Flame, Shembir, Red Blush, Star Ruby, Tanjelo, Pearl, and Fair Child.|
|2||What are the varieties of grapefruits used in the high temperature conditions?||Free Mount, Fair Child, Pearl, Red Blush and Shember are the varieties used in the high temperature.|
|3||What are the varieties of the orange used in the different areas of Pakistan?||Salstena, Marsh iraly, Tarako, New liana and moro Blood.
Tarako, New Liana and Moro Blood are the seedless varieties of orange.
|4||What are the varieties of lemon?||Eureka lemon, miner lemon, and lysine are the varieties of the lemon.|
|5||What are the summer varieties of the lemon?||Kagzi lemon, China lemon and Tehti Lemon are the summer lemon varieties.|
|6||What are the varieties of the masami?||Local metha, Kashmiri Metha and Peshawari Methaare the varieties of the Metha.|
Breading in citrus
|1||Can I plant citrus fruits through the help of seed?||Yes, you can plant the citrus fruits through the seeds, but the plants prepared from seed bear late fruits and the quality of these is not so good.|
|2||What is the main root stock used in the citrus fruits?||In our country Jati Khati and Khata two types are used.|
|3||What are the common methods of breading in the citrus fruits?||In the citrus fruits we use Seed, Cutting, Grafting and layering methods for breading.|
|4||What are the methods of plantation of plants in the garden of citrus?||For the plantation of the citrus plants in the garden Square method is the best because cultural practices are easy with this method. Hexagons and pentagonal arrangements are also used.|
|5||How we can get the seed for root stock preparation?||When the fruit near to harvesting, pick it from the plant where root stock is prepared. Place the fruit for some days in the shadow for softness. After this cut the outer covering with the help of a knife, but don’t cut the pulp. Remove the seed from the pulp and wash in the water. Remove all the unhealthy seed. The seed should be treated with the any fungicide like Mate Axel. Sow the seed in the August/ September Or February/March.|
|5||What is the age of the root stock for grafting?||One year aged root stocks are best for the grafting and also root stocks have a diameter of a finger.|
|6||What type of place is required for nursery growing of citrus?||For nursery growing of citrus fruits you selected the place where no nursery grown for minimum one year.
It has good drainage.
It should be away from the garden.
|7||What are the things should be considered during the selection of soil for the plantation of citrus fruits?||These things need to be considered.
1. Analysis of the soil.
2. Soil should be silty.
3. Has the good drainage.
4. For the irrigation canal water is available.
5. If the source of irrigation is tube well then analyzed the water.
6. Availability of labor.
7. Cold storage is present.
|8||What are the precautions during the selection of the plants of citrus fruits?||For the selection of the plants these things keep in mind
1. Plants should be purchased from authorized nurseries.
2. The plants should belong to the good varieties.
3. Select the healthy plants.
4. Take the plants within the ball of soil.
5. The plants should be the same age.
|9||What is planting time of citrus fruits?||The best time of plantation of citrus plants is September – October.|
|10||How we can, we protect the plants from the Stroms?|| Used the windbreaker, for this purpose plant the one row of fast growing and branched trees outside the garden.
|11||What is the plant population for one acre of citrus fruits?||For the best soils the R*R & P*P is about the 20 ft. And P.P is 108.
For the average soil the R*R& P*P is about 18 ft. And plant population is 134.
|12||What is the precautions need after the transplanting the plants?||After transplanting the plants, cut the 1/3of upper portion of the plant to overcome the transplanting shock.
Gave the irrigation in the frost conditions.
Fertilizer Recommendations and methods of application
|1||How much farm yard manure applied to the plants of citrus?||For the mature plant 80kg well decomposed FYM is required.|
|2||When we use the FYM in the citrus?||FYM applied in the first week of February and also with the FYM adds DAP+SOP and gave the irrigation after that|
|3||What are the symptoms of the nitrogen deficiency in the citrus?||Yellowing of the older leaves, premature falling of fruits and stunted growth.|
|4||What are the deficiency symptoms of phosphorus?||Late fruiting, low quality, Rough and heavy covering and low juice.|
|5||What are the deficiency symptoms of potash?||Yellowing of the leaves from corners, no shining and low sweetness.|
|6||What type micronutrients used in the citrus?||For the Zinc you can use the zinc sulfate sprayed of 0.1%, for the Iron you can use Iron sulfate sprayed.5% and for Boron you can use the Sna Boron 3kg/ year.|
|7||How we can overcome the problem of alternate bearing?||With the use of proper and balanced fertilizers you can cover up this problem in citrus.|
Sowing of the crops in the garden
|1||Can I grow the crops in the garden?||Yes, you can grow the crops during t initial three year of your garden.|
|2||What type of crops can I grow in the garden?||You can grow Wheat, Pea, cabbage, Onion and pulses in your garden. The crops require more water never be sown in the garden like Rice, Sugercane and Berseem.|
Protection from the fruit falling
|1||How can we protect the premature flower& fruit falling?||1. Making bar outside the garden.
2. Minimize the irrigation duration in the summer.
3. Balanced use of fertilizer.
4. Protect the garden from insect,pest and diseases.
|1||How am I detected the need of irrigation?||Check the soil at the depth of 12-15 inches if there is no moisture then gave the irrigation immediately.|
|2||What are the precautions in the irrigation for the citrus?||These are the precautions in the citrus.
1. Stop the irrigation before the one month of flowering.
2. Never a shortage of irrigation in the period of fruiting from April to September.
3. In the summer gave the irrigation after 10 days.
|3||What are the effects of over and shortage irrigation on the citrus?||Dropping of the fruits is due to the water shortage.
Roots are damaged and the leaves become pale due to over irrigation.
|1||How we can control the citrus canker?||These things keep in mind for the citrus canker
1. Cut all of the affected portion of the plant.
2. Control the leaf miner.
3. Use the Bi phethrean for control of leaf miner.
4. Select the healthy plants from good nurseries.
|2||How we can control the citrus scab?||Spary the copper oxychloride with the duration of 15-20 days.|
|3||How we can control the Sarsook or woder tep?||Cut the affected branches of the plants
Spray the Topsin M or Mencozeb.
|4||How we can control on the greening disease in the citrus?||Remove all of the affected plants and plant the new ones.
Gave the injection of extratelra cyclic in the stem of the plants.
|1||How we can control on the Aphid of the citrus?||Spray the aktera 24 g/100 L water or Bi phethren 80 ml/100 L of water.|
|2||Hoe we control the fruit fly in the citrus?||Use the Trichlorofon 100g OR Deprass 100 g.|
|3||How we can control the citrus borer?||Spray the aktera 25 WG 10g/100 L water.|
|4||How we prepared the bowrdth mixture?||Follow this procedure for making the bowrdth mixture
1. Take the11/2 kg of calcium sulfate and make the mixture in the water.
2. Take copper sulfate of 1 kg and make the solution in water.
3. Then mixed these two solutions and make the mixture.
4. Take the iron stick and dip into the mixture if there is no rust sign on the stick this is the indicator of the quality of the mixture.
5. Use it in 150 L water for fungal control.
For more information Please contact at [email protected]
Authors: Imran Ramzan*, Arslan Shehroz1, Muhamamd Zunair Latif2,
Author * Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture Faisalabad
1&2 Co-author Department of Plant pathology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad
E-mail: [email protected]