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Mango malformation: Causes and its Management




  • Authors: Hafiz Atta Ur Rehman Saeed1 and Umar Niaz2
    Institute of Horticultural Sciences1 and Department of Entomology2
    University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan

    Introduction:
    Mango is known as king of fruits and Pakistan is placed at 5th position worldwide in production
    phase. In production phase Mango is produced more at 2nd position after citrus. Pakistani Mango
    also has 4th rank in worldwide exports chain. It is difficult to understand growth habit of tree,
    vegetative as well as reproductively. It has various diseases attack worldwide. Malformation is
    very complicated disease that was identified by watt in 1891, very first time in Bihar, India. Now
    a days over the world countries including Pakistan, USA, India, Sudan and Bangladesh have been
    identified this problem.
    Broadly speaking in Pakistan there is no cultivar that may not have this problem but intensity of
    infestation may differ depending on cultivar. This infestation is less in “langra” than “chaunsa and
    Dusehri”.
    Symptoms:
    • Convoluted malformation disorder has two ways to attack on mango
    • Vegetative (bunchy top)
    • Reproductive (floral malformation)
    Vegetative symptoms: Terminal parts of apical shoots have small internode distance and
    apical growth became disrupted. Main stems may also affected at nursery raising stage. Unpleasant
    and unnatural mass can be observe on shoots attacked by malformation this usually occurs on
    juvenile stage of plant.
    Reproductive symptoms: Inflorescence become suppressed and rachis looks coagulated.
    Whole panicle may not affected that can be observe as some part has condensed flowers and rest
    has shallow normal flowers. This fungal disease may also discontinue some internal functions and
    enhances some abnormal functions.
    Causes:
    In past it was known that it is due to viruses having hopper as transmitting agent and also fungicide
    treatments had no effects regarding control.
    Now research have been showed no difference between healthy and affected shoots. On the other
    hand high concentrations of carbohydrates in shoots and inflorescence have been demonstrated as
    well as conflicted. Affected panicles and branched contain malformin like compounds while rest
    of them do not. Antimalformins have been failed to eliminate this infestation.
    Mistreated or unnoticed orchards have been affected heavily by this infestation. One important
    thing is that once this problem occurred even minute, this upgrades it level. This infestation occurs
    in late flushes of mango i.e. in June and afterward.
    Control strategies:
    • Pruning of affected inflorescence from mid-March to mid-May but best is shown in midApril
    and afterward to reduce infestation.
    • Suggested dose of NPK, solution of zinc and boron and after harvesting cooper application
    is experimented.
    • We should use various plant growth regulators (PGR) such as GA for langra and chaunsa,
    NAA at prebloom and postharvest stage.
    • Infected tree should be treated with Topson-M at panicle pruning in April and harvesting.
    • Destroy all the infected plants.
    • Healthy disease free scion stock should be used.
    • Remove as soon as possible infected part of panicle and burnt.
    • Foliar application of cobalt at the concentration of 1000ppm can eliminate malformation.

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