Preparation of Khoa


To concentrate milk into dough mass by desiccation.
To assess the quality of concentrated dough mass (khoa).

Relevant information:

In India the quantity of milk available in flush season for exceeds to actual requirements. Under the tropical climate of our country and with limited facilities of storage, the excess of milk cannot be stored or transported as such for marketing. Hence it is imperative to convert into khoa by the producers as a method of utilizing surplus milk.

Khoa is an ancient indigenous milk product which constitutes an important base for the preparation of various Indian sweet meats. The surplus milk produced during flush season in converted into khoa by the producers as a method of utilizing surplus milk.

There are 3 types (varieties) of khoa viz. Pindi, Dhap, and Danedar, Pindi is used for the preparation of Burfi and Peda. Dhap for Gulabjamun and Danedar for Kalakand. A continuous khoa making machine is having steam jacketed drum heater with a rotary scarper. A milk outlet valve has been designed for large scale production of khoa.


Take at most care while stirring hot milk during desiccation to avoid splashing and excessive charring.

Material required:

1. Buffalo/Cow milk
2. Vegetable parchment paper


Iron karahi (10 kg capacity) with a top diameter of 40 cm with loop handles on opposite side.
Khunti (65 cm length and 7.5 cm flattened end)
Charcoal chulah (32 cm diameter)
Weighing pan balance


1. Take 2 to 3 liters of milk in Iron karahi.
2. Keep the karahi on non smoky fire or charcoal chulah.
3. Bring the milk to boiling temperature.
4. Start the stirring of milk continuously. Scrap all the parts of the pan covering the milk. Boil the milk vigorously.
5. At this point stir the milk at about 100 rpm. Which would help for constant evaporation of moisture and progressive thickening of milk.
6. The thickened mass shows spurting, abrupt change in colour and consistency at this stage also vigorous stirring and desiccation are continued till the vicous product reaches a pasty consistency and leaves the sides of pan.
7. At this stage give close attention and reduce the fire so as to lower down the temperature to 80-88 0 C.
8. The final product is ready when it shows signs of sticking together.
9. Remove the pan from the fire; work the contents up and down and spreading to the cooler part of karahi. After some time remove the khoa on parchment paper and make circular pat. Weigh the quantity of khoa


Muhammad Ramzan Rafique
Muhammad Ramzan Rafique

I am from a small town Chichawatni, Sahiwal, Punjab , Pakistan, studied from University of Agriculture Faisalabad, on my mission to explore world I am in Denmark these days..

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