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Soil Forming Factors

The soil formation is the process of two consecutive stages.

  1. The weathering of rock (R) into Regolith

  2. The formation of true soil from Regolith

The evolution of true soil from regolith takes place by the combined action of soil forming factors and processes.

    1. The first step is accomplished by weathering (disintegration & decomposition)

    2. The second step is associated with the action of Soil Forming Factors

Weathering Factors
Dokuchaiev (1889) established that the soils develop as a result of the action of soil forming factors
S = f ( P, Cl, O )

Further, Jenny (1941) formulated the following equation 

S = f (Cl, O, R, P, T, …) 
Cl – environmental climate 
o – Organisms and vegetation (biosphere) 
r – Relief or topography 
p – Parent material 
t- Time 
… – additional unspecified factors
The five soil forming factors, acting simultaneously at any point on the surface of the earth, to produce soil
Two groups – Passive i) Parent material, ii) Relief, iii) Time 
   Active IV) Climate, v) Vegetation & organism

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