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Production and protection Technology of five major crops of Pakistan

  •  Production and protection Technology of five major crops of Pakistan:

    Author names: Dr. Faisal Hafeez, Ayesha Iftikhar, Muhammad Sohaib, Ayesha Arshad.

    Ayub Agricultural Research Institute (AARI) Faisalabad.


    Wheat, rice, maize, cotton and sugarcane are considered most valuable crops in Pakistan. Wheat is a staple food for people of India and Pakistan. After wheat, rice is considered edible crop. Maize was also important as staple food in most parts of world. But not all maize is consumed as human food, it is also used as corn, animal feed etc. However, in fabric industry cotton is most important crop. For the formation of sugar and ethanol etc, sugarcane is used. The following table summarises all the important points of production and protection technologies of these five crops.


    Characteristics Wheat Maize Sugarcane Cotton Rice
    Botanical name Triticum aestivum L. Zea mays L. Sacchaum officinarum. Gossypium hirsutum. Oryza sativa L.
    Family Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Malvaceae Poaceae
    Order Poales Poales Poales Malvales Poales
    Urdu name Gandum Makai Naishkar Kapas Chaawl
    Punjabi name Kanak Jowar Kamad/ Ganna Kapah/ Phutti Monji
    Yield per acre/ ha 2.79 t/ha 3.67t/ha 60-70t/ha 638Kg/ha 691mounds/acre
    Crop type Annual Annual Perennial Annual Annual/Perennial
    Ranking in the world 8th in the world production 23th in the world production 6th in the world production 4th in the world


    3rd in the world production
    Sowing time October- November February-March




    April-May May-June
    Harvesting time April When top becomes brown Feb-March


    Oct-Nov Oct-Nov
    Row to row distance 22.5 to 30 cm 60-75cm 75-90cm 2.5ft 22.5cm
    Plant to plant distance Continuous lines 22.5cm Continuous setts 9 inches 22.5cm
    Plants per acre/ ha 10-12 lac 65,000 to 75,000 plants per hectare 60000 canes per acre 22k-23k Almost 80k
    Seed rate 40-50kg/acre 12-15kg/acre 30k-45k setts per acre 5-7kg/acre for Desi

    8-12kg/acre for American

    1-2 Kg for Non-Basmati (for one Marla)
    Soil type Clay Loam Loam Heavy to Loam Sandy to heavy loam Clayey soil
    Description of plant Pithy nodes, Hollow internodes Tassel


    Cross pollinated crop

    Erect, usually 5-6m having nodes and internodes. Tap rooted,

    2-5 feet, self-pollinated

    Usually height of 1.8m, look like hollow stem
    Irrigation 3-4 6-8 18-22 5-6 (15-16)1100-1400mm
    Soil preparation 4-6 ploughing and 2 planking 1-2 ploughing and 2 planking 2 ploughing and planking 2 ploughing and planking Usually 2 ploughing and 1 planking
    Fertilizer/acre(NPK) 1N:1P 60:28:25kg 80:40:40kg 40:28:28 70:40:25kg
    Verities Galaxy 2013

    Inqilab 91

    Chakwal 86









    CIM 496

    CIM 499

    NIAB 999

    FH 114

    Basmati 198, 370, 385, 6129 Super Basmati, Shaheen


    Important pests Aphids Shoot Fly


    Borers American, Pink, Spotted Bollworms Stem Borers
    Protection from pest Water spray

    Bio-control agent (Beetles)

    Cartap and chlorpyrifos spray Fipronil and Imidacloprid spray Acetamiprid and Deltamiprid spray Cartap and carbofuran spray
    Diseases Smut and Rust Ear rot

    Root rot


    Red rot Root rot of cotton Paddy blast

    Brown spot

    Bakaine disease


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