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Production and protection Technology of five major crops of Pakistan




  •  Production and protection Technology of five major crops of Pakistan:

    Author names: Dr. Faisal Hafeez, Ayesha Iftikhar, Muhammad Sohaib, Ayesha Arshad.

    Ayub Agricultural Research Institute (AARI) Faisalabad.

    Introduction:

    Wheat, rice, maize, cotton and sugarcane are considered most valuable crops in Pakistan. Wheat is a staple food for people of India and Pakistan. After wheat, rice is considered edible crop. Maize was also important as staple food in most parts of world. But not all maize is consumed as human food, it is also used as corn, animal feed etc. However, in fabric industry cotton is most important crop. For the formation of sugar and ethanol etc, sugarcane is used. The following table summarises all the important points of production and protection technologies of these five crops.

     

    Characteristics WheatMaizeSugarcaneCottonRice
    Botanical nameTriticum aestivum L.Zea mays L.Sacchaum officinarum.Gossypium hirsutum.Oryza sativa L.
    FamilyPoaceaePoaceaePoaceaeMalvaceaePoaceae
    OrderPoalesPoalesPoalesMalvalesPoales
    Urdu nameGandumMakaiNaishkarKapasChaawl
    Punjabi nameKanakJowarKamad/ GannaKapah/ PhuttiMonji
    Yield per acre/ ha2.79 t/ha3.67t/ha60-70t/ha638Kg/ha691mounds/acre
    Crop typeAnnualAnnualPerennialAnnualAnnual/Perennial
    Ranking in the world8th in the world production23th in the world production6th in the world production4th in the world

    production

    3rd in the world production
    Sowing timeOctober- NovemberFebruary-March

    July-August

    September

    February-March

    April-MayMay-June
    Harvesting timeAprilWhen top becomes brownFeb-March

    Nov-Dec

    Oct-NovOct-Nov
    Row to row distance22.5 to 30 cm60-75cm75-90cm2.5ft22.5cm
    Plant to plant distanceContinuous lines22.5cmContinuous setts9 inches22.5cm
    Plants per acre/ ha10-12 lac65,000 to 75,000 plants per hectare60000 canes per acre22k-23kAlmost 80k
    Seed rate40-50kg/acre12-15kg/acre30k-45k setts per acre5-7kg/acre for Desi

    8-12kg/acre for American

    1-2 Kg for Non-Basmati (for one Marla)
    Soil typeClay LoamLoamHeavy to LoamSandy to heavy loamClayey soil
    Description of plantPithy nodes, Hollow internodesTassel

    Ear

    Cross pollinated crop

    Erect, usually 5-6m having nodes and internodes.Tap rooted,

    2-5 feet, self-pollinated

    Usually height of 1.8m, look like hollow stem
    Irrigation3-46-818-225-6(15-16)1100-1400mm
    Soil preparation4-6 ploughing and 2 planking1-2 ploughing and 2 planking2 ploughing and planking2 ploughing and plankingUsually 2 ploughing and 1 planking
    Fertilizer/acre(NPK)1N:1P60:28:25kg80:40:40kg40:28:2870:40:25kg
    VeritiesGalaxy 2013

    Inqilab 91

    Chakwal 86

    Neelam

    Sadaf

    Akbar

    Sultan

    SPF-213

    SPF-234

    HSF-240

    HSF-242

    CIM 496

    CIM 499

    NIAB 999

    FH 114

    Basmati 198, 370, 385, 6129 Super Basmati, Shaheen

     

    Important pestsAphidsShoot Fly

    Borers

    BorersAmerican, Pink, Spotted BollwormsStem Borers
    Protection from pestWater spray

    Bio-control agent (Beetles)

    Cartap and chlorpyrifos sprayFipronil and Imidacloprid sprayAcetamiprid and Deltamiprid sprayCartap and carbofuran spray
    DiseasesSmut and RustEar rot

    Root rot

    Rusts

    Red rotRoot rot of cottonPaddy blast

    Brown spot

    Bakaine disease

     

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