Production and protection Technology of five major crops of Pakistan

 Production and protection Technology of five major crops of Pakistan:

Author names: Dr. Faisal Hafeez, Ayesha Iftikhar, Muhammad Sohaib, Ayesha Arshad.

Ayub Agricultural Research Institute (AARI) Faisalabad.


Wheat, rice, maize, cotton and sugarcane are considered most valuable crops in Pakistan. Wheat is a staple food for people of India and Pakistan. After wheat, rice is considered edible crop. Maize was also important as staple food in most parts of world. But not all maize is consumed as human food, it is also used as corn, animal feed etc. However, in fabric industry cotton is most important crop. For the formation of sugar and ethanol etc, sugarcane is used. The following table summarises all the important points of production and protection technologies of these five crops.


Characteristics Wheat Maize Sugarcane Cotton Rice
Botanical name Triticum aestivum L. Zea mays L. Sacchaum officinarum. Gossypium hirsutum. Oryza sativa L.
Family Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Malvaceae Poaceae
Order Poales Poales Poales Malvales Poales
Urdu name Gandum Makai Naishkar Kapas Chaawl
Punjabi name Kanak Jowar Kamad/ Ganna Kapah/ Phutti Monji
Yield per acre/ ha 2.79 t/ha 3.67t/ha 60-70t/ha 638Kg/ha 691mounds/acre
Crop type Annual Annual Perennial Annual Annual/Perennial
Ranking in the world 8th in the world production 23th in the world production 6th in the world production 4th in the world


3rd in the world production
Sowing time October- November February-March




April-May May-June
Harvesting time April When top becomes brown Feb-March


Oct-Nov Oct-Nov
Row to row distance 22.5 to 30 cm 60-75cm 75-90cm 2.5ft 22.5cm
Plant to plant distance Continuous lines 22.5cm Continuous setts 9 inches 22.5cm
Plants per acre/ ha 10-12 lac 65,000 to 75,000 plants per hectare 60000 canes per acre 22k-23k Almost 80k
Seed rate 40-50kg/acre 12-15kg/acre 30k-45k setts per acre 5-7kg/acre for Desi

8-12kg/acre for American

1-2 Kg for Non-Basmati (for one Marla)
Soil type Clay Loam Loam Heavy to Loam Sandy to heavy loam Clayey soil
Description of plant Pithy nodes, Hollow internodes Tassel


Cross pollinated crop

Erect, usually 5-6m having nodes and internodes. Tap rooted,

2-5 feet, self-pollinated

Usually height of 1.8m, look like hollow stem
Irrigation 3-4 6-8 18-22 5-6 (15-16)1100-1400mm
Soil preparation 4-6 ploughing and 2 planking 1-2 ploughing and 2 planking 2 ploughing and planking 2 ploughing and planking Usually 2 ploughing and 1 planking
Fertilizer/acre(NPK) 1N:1P 60:28:25kg 80:40:40kg 40:28:28 70:40:25kg
Verities Galaxy 2013

Inqilab 91

Chakwal 86









CIM 496

CIM 499

NIAB 999

FH 114

Basmati 198, 370, 385, 6129 Super Basmati, Shaheen


Important pests Aphids Shoot Fly


Borers American, Pink, Spotted Bollworms Stem Borers
Protection from pest Water spray

Bio-control agent (Beetles)

Cartap and chlorpyrifos spray Fipronil and Imidacloprid spray Acetamiprid and Deltamiprid spray Cartap and carbofuran spray
Diseases Smut and Rust Ear rot

Root rot


Red rot Root rot of cotton Paddy blast

Brown spot

Bakaine disease



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