Growth stages for different crops

(Written by:   Khadija Tehseen Arshad)

“Growth is actually a complex processes with different organs developing, growing and dying in overlapping sequences”. It is also: “Irreversible increase in size, weight, or volume”.

Types of growth:

There are basically two types of growth:

  • Determinate growth
  • Indeterminate growth

Determinate growth:

It is the type of growth in which a plant first completes its vegetative growth and then it shifts to the reproductive growth.

For example, wheat.

Indeterminate growth:

In this type of growth, both stages “vegetative and reproductive” of a plant goes side by side.

For example, Cotton.

Phases of growth:

Basically, there are two phases of growth:

  • Vegetative
  • Reproductive

Vegetative phase:

It is that stage of growth when a plant develops its vegetative part. For example, leaves, roots, stem etc.

Reproductive phase:

It is that stage of growth when a plant develops its reproductive part. For example, ovaries, anthers etc.

Growth stages for Cereals crops:

There are different stages of crop for the cereal cops that are:

  • Vegetative stage
  • Stem elongation stage
  • Booting stage
  • Heading stage
  • Anthesis stage
  • Milking stage
  • Dough stage
  • Ripe seed stage

Vegetative stage:

In this stage of growth, leaves emerge from the plant.(stem elongation process not started).

Stem elongation stage:

In this stage of development, stem elongation starts, specify early or late jointing.

Booting stage:

In this stage, flower head is enclosed in flag leaf sheath and not showing.


In this stage, flower head emerging or emerged from flag leaf sheath but not shedding pollen.


In this flowering stage, anthers shedding pollen.

Milking stage:

Seed immature, endosperm milky.

Dough stage:

In this stage, well developed seed is produced.

Ripe seed:

Seed ripe, leaves green to yellow brown.

Growth stages for legume crops:

There are different growth stages for the legume crops, that are:

  • Late vegetative
  • Early bud
  • Mid bud
  • Late bud
  • First bloom
  • Mid bloom
  • Full bloom

Late vegetative:

In this stage of leguminous crop, the crop has no visible buds, flowers, or seed pods. Stem at least 12 inch tall.

Early bud:

In this stage of growth and development, flowers start to visible on at least one stem(1%).

Mid bud:

In this stage of development of plant, Half (50%) of the stems have at least one bud.

Late bud:

In this stage of plant growth, 75% of the stems has at least one bud and no visible flower.

First bloom:

In this stage, flowers emerge on at least one stem.

Mid bloom:

In this stage, 50% stems of plant have at least one flower.

Full bloom:

In this stage of growth of a plant, 75% of the stems have at least one flower, and no visible seed pods.


About Author:

Written by:  Khadija Tehseen Arshad

Department: Agronomy

University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.


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I completed my B.SC(Hons) in Agri Extension major from University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. I am Director, Agrihunt.
I am also Deputy Editor, The Veterinary News and Views.

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