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Agri Engineering

Classification and Principle of Leveling

Classification of leveling 1. Different leveling: It is the operation of leveling to determine the elevations of points. Some distance a part or to establish bench marks. 2. Check leveling: It is the operation of running levels for the purpose of checking the series of levels, which have been previously …

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Study of Contour

The purpose of topographic survey is to get the necessary data to produce a topographic map of the earth’s surface. This map will include contour lines, location of natural features, such as streams, gullies, and ditches and man-made features like bridges, culverts, roads, fences, etc. which are needful for detailed …

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Introduction to Runoff

Over the land surface, for the generation of runoff, the primary source of water is Rainfall. A part of rainfall that intercepted by the vegetation, buildings and other objects and prevented to reach them on grand surface is called as interception. Part of rainfall stored in the surface depressions which …

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Factors Affecting runoff

Runoff arte and volume from an area mainly influenced by following two factors A. Climatic factors.B. Physiographical Factors. A. Climate factors: It is associated with characteristics of which includes. 1.Types of Precipitation: It has great effect on the runoff. E.g. A precipitation which occurs in the form of rainfall starts …

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Direct Runoff and Time of Concentration

Direct Runoff The part of runoff which enters the stream quickly after the rainfall or snow melting. To design soil conservation structure with proper capacity it is necessary to estimate peak runoff rate. Peak runoff Rate: It is the maximum rate of flowing runoff per unit time. Rational Method: This is …

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Runoff Coefficient

Runoff Coefficient is the ratio of between the peak runoff rate and intensity of rainfall. The Rational Method is based upon following Two Assumptions: 1. Rainfall occurs at uniform intensity for duration at least equal to the time of concentration of watershed. 2. Rainfall occurs at a uniform intensity over …

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Runoff Measuring Devices

Unites of measurement of water: Water is measured under two conditions –at rest and in motion water Water at rest: [Water in reservoirs ponds soil, tank] it is measured in units of volume such as liter, cubic meters, hectare centimeter and hectare –meter Water in motion: [water flowing in rivers …

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Parshall Flumes

is open channel type measuring devices that operates whit a small drop in head. The loss of head for free flow limit is only about 25%of that weir sand or silt in the flowing water does not affect its operation or accuracy .it allows accurate measurement even when partially submerged. …

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Orifices

Orifices in open channels are usually circular or rectangular opening in vertically bulkhead through water flows. The edge of opening is sharp and often constructed of metal. Free flow orifices: It can be used to measure comparatively small stream like the flow into border strips, or check basin. They consist …

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