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Study on herbal dye extracted from bixa seed




  • Abstract:

     

    Dye is a substance that has affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied. Such as, textile fibers, foodstuffs & powder. From archeological evidence, it is seen that in India & in Middle East dyeing has been carried out for over 5,000 years, which were obtained from animal, vegetable or mineral origin. The greatest source of this dye was mainly from plant kingdom; mainly roots, bark, leave & wood. Dye from Bixa (Annatto) seed is one type of natural dye which can be used as dyeing agent for coloring textile fibers like cotton, wool, silk & for making colorful Gulal as well as in food industry. Bixin, the pigment extracted from the red-colored seeds, can be used as coloring agent for this purpose. It is non-carcinogenic in nature & so does not affect human body or environment. An attempt is being made in laboratory scale to extract the natural pigment from the Bixa seeds & its application in different fields such as textiles, Gulal & food Industry.

     

    Introduction:

     

    Chemical dyes & coloured powders are made from chemical reagents. These chemical reagents are harmful towards the human body & have toxic effects on skin. As a result of which, there is a demand for dyes & coloured powders (gulal) being produced from natural sources. Being natural in origin these herbal dyes & gulals do not pose health hazards1,2,3,4,5 & are safe for human use. This project work focused mainly on the production of dye & gulal from Bixa seeds (Annatto sp). Experiments were also done on the extraction of flaral dye from marigold, hibiscus etc. In the laboratory scale , dye was extracted from flowers ( marigold, hibiscus etc ) & seeds ( bixa ) by water extraction method. Fabrics ( like cotton, silk) were dyed & coloured powder ( gulal ) was produced with these dyes. The TDS & Metal Concentration in these samples were measured. Finally, bacteriological tests were conducted on these samples , the bacteria being isolated & identified.

     

    Experimental procedure:

     

    Materials:

     

    Bixa Seeds:

     

    Bixa is a small tree found throughout the hotter parts of India. Bixa is cultivated for its seeds in Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala & West Bengal as orange-red colour is found from its which can be used as dyeing materials for colour fibres and making colourful powder. It occurs in two forms: White flowers & green capsules other with pink flowers & red capsules. The seeds which are dry, hard, bright red & have a characteristics smell are considered good for dyeing. The unmordanted cotton gives dull shades but using proper mordant, the colour & brightness of the colouring cloth is increased. The colourful dye extracted from bixa is non-carcinogenic. From Literature, it is seen that due to its non-toxic nature, dye is extensively used in dairy-industry for colouring butter, ghee, cheese, margarine, ice cream, chocolate, meats, cereals, confectionary, spices etc. In Latin America, the seeds are fried in fat & the colour part is used to tent rice, gravies & stew. It is used as an ingredient in hair oils, shoe-polishes, soap, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals ointments. It can also be used in adsortion-indicator in agrentometric titrations.

     

    Common Name

    Family

    Habitat

     

    Parts used for dyeing

    Colour Index

    : Annatto, Arnato, Chinese Dye Tree, Lipstick tree, Saffron Tree.

    : Bixaceae

    : Tropical America, Brazil, East West Indies

      & widely cultivated in Asia & Africa.

    : Seeds, Dried pulp of fruits.

    : C.I. Natural Orange 4 (C.I. 75120)

    The chief ingredient of annatto is Bixin.

     

                                      CH               CH3

     

           
       

     

     

     

    HOOC-[CH=CH-C=CH]2-CH=CH-[CH=C-CH] 2-COOCH3

     

    Bixin comprising 70 80 % of the total pigments present in the seed. In addition, a water soluble yellow dye, orelilin, methyl bixin, ß-carotene, cryptoxanthin, lutein and zexanthin are also reported. Bixin gives water-soluble products on saponification, and it is called as norbixin. Bixin is the main pigment of oil-soluble annatto and norbixin is the principal colouring matter of water-soluble products. This is not belong to mordant dye classes, but it belongs to direct/acid dye class. So it can be used without use of mordant. But the colour depth & brightness is increased in presence of mordant.

     

    Methods:

     

    • Water extraction method5: Dye from Bixa seeds are extracted by the aqueous extraction procedure. In this method the seeds are heated with water & the pigmented liquid is collected. The extraction process is carried out at different temperatures & for different extraction times to get the optimization point of the process. Colouring materials from the Annatto seeds are extracted for dyeing the textile. After the complete extraction of dye, the seeds are taken out from the liquor and are extracted for the orange coloured dye, a second time.

     

    • Dyeing cotton: Textile refers to the yarns, threads, wools that can be spun, woven tufted tied to manufacture cloths. Cotton is one of the most commonly abundant natural fibre of textile. Cold water causes cotton to swell without chemically altering it. Chemically it is cellulose in nature .Pure cellulose is a white substance with specific gravity of 1.5. Many of the natural dye has carboxyl group & aromatic side chain. These are hydrolyzed by water molecules to anions. As the surface of cotton is anionic in nature, when it is treated with water; repulsion occurs between the cotton fibres & water molecules. As a result the dye can not properly bind with the textile fibres. Therefore, the cotton fibre has to be treated with mordant before dyeing. The mordant cationizes the fabric & the anions of dye can now bind properly.

     

    • Mordant: Few natural dyes are colour fast fibres. Mordants are substances which are used to fix a dye to the fibres.They also improve the take up quality of the fabric & help improve colour & light fastness. The term is derived from the Latin word mordere (to bite). Most natural dyers use chemical mordants such as alum, copper sulphate, iron or chrome. Mordants are prepaired in solution, often with the addition of an assistant which improves the fixing of the mordant to the yarn or fibre. The most commonly used mordant is alum, which is usually used with cream or tartar as an additive or assistant. Alum was used in the project work to dye cotton fibres with Bixa, marigold & hibiscus dyes.

     

    • Gulal Preparation: The liquid dye was mixed with talcum powder to produce a semisolid mixture. It was then dried to obtain the powdered gulal. At different concentrations of the dye, the colour shade of the gulal varied. The type of colour is different for the type of natural dye usedThe gulal obtained from Bixa is dark red to orange in colour. If scented talcum powder is used, then the gulals have a pleasant fragrance.

     

    • Metals: The metals tested for in the sample solutions are Cadmium, Lead, Copper & Zinc. Of this Cadmium, Lead & Copper are the heavy metals & the most harmful. However, these are found in negligible amounts in the samples. Zinc is the metal found in highest percentage. The sources for these are probably fertilizers used in the fields where these plants are grown.

     

    Experimental Results & Discussions:-

    Figure 1: Bixa (Annatto)

     

     

    Figure 2: Dyeing cotton cloth with Bixa

     

     

    Table 1: Optimization of Dyeing temperature

     

    Sr No.

    Temperature

    (in 0C)

    Time

    minute

    Dye present in aqueous. solution

    (in mg/l)

    1

    50

    30

    3953.3

    2

    80

    30

    6950

    3

    91

    30

    7010

    4

    100

    30

    6968.70

    Table 2: Optimization of dyeing Time:

    Sr No.

    Time

    minute

    Temperature

    (in 0C)

    Dye present in aqueous. Solution

    (in mg/l)

    1

    15

    80

    4545

    2

    30

    80

    6950

    3

    45

    80

    5907

    4

    60

    80

    7882

    5

    120

    80

    6412.5

     

     

     

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