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Jute is the problem solving crop of current era, relating to fibers and economy issues.




  • JuteCarpetbackingclothIntroduction:

    Jute is a natural, vegetable, di cotyledon fiber. It’s known as the golden fiber because the fiber of the jute is golden in colour. Jute is the eco-friendly crop and also has ability to 100% bio gradable by the action of microorganisms.

    In the textile and production, jute is second (2nd) after cotton throughout the world. A retting process is done to separate the fiber from the jute. Jute is fulfilling the basic needs of humankind from ancient period of times. The leaves of the jute is used as a vegetable and it’s fiber is used for making of cloth, sacks, carpets, plastic sheets, rugs, chair coverings, shopping bags and many other useful things.

    Importance:

    Jute is 2nd after cotton in usage. Pakistan spend 27.504 million dollar to import 53.214 metric ton jute annually from Bangladesh. There are 14 jute mills in Pakistan presently and all of these are obtained their raw material from other countries. Pakistan needs one lakh and fifty thousand acre of land (150000) for self-depended on jute, to cultivate of jute. From the cultivation of jute in the proper way and on the proper soil not only would enable us self-depend on jute but also our 4000 people will get directly and one lakh (100000) families will get indirectly benefit from jute cultivation.

    Benefits:

    • Fiber of the jute is used for to prepare the sacks of coffee, potato, onion, vegetables and other agricultural products.
    • Jute fiber is used for to make the twins which are used for to tie the plant material and cotton bale cover.
    • Hessian fiber is got from jute.
    • Shopping bags, carpets and rugs are prepared from jute.
    • Chair covering are also made by the fiber of jute.
    • Plastic and many other useful things are obtained by jute.
    • Use as a mulch, jute fabric laid over the soil to stabilized it against the water and soil erosion and weed control also.
    • Jute fabric also used for to preserve the soil moisture and nutrients.
    • A good quality fiber is used for making the cloth. And jute is also used in the paper industry for the production of paper.
    • Jute is usually produced four (4) times more fiber than flax.
    • Jute is the eco-friendly crop, has the ability to complete degrade by microbes and enhanced the fertility status of the soil.
    • It cleans the air because it assimilates three times more (co2) carbon dioxide than any other normal plant.
    • Leaves and roots left over after harvest which enrich the soil with micronutrients and organic matter.
    • Reduce the environmental pollution by producing the plastic, polythene and glass which is recycled again and again and 100% gradable.
    •  After the fiber extraction the remaining portion of jute used for energy purpose.

    Soil for cultivation:

    • Jute can be growing on the wide range of soil including the effected soil.
    • Fertile sandy loam, clay loam, flooded soil, soil effected with salt, soil having the problem of alkalinity and acidity.
    • Jute can also be growing in the standing water.

    Soil preparation

    2-3 cultivation is recommend for the seed bed preparation and one planking is done to get the fine seed bed.

    Season:

    The best time of sowing is February to May. It can also be sow until the first week of June.

    Varieties:

    1. Basically the jute is two types.
    2. Corchorus capsularis (White Jute)
    3. Corchorus olitorius (Tossa Jute)

    Fertilizer requirement:

    Add 5 t FYM per acre.

    Nitrogen                         40kg/acre

    Potassium                       20kg/acre

    Phosphors                       20kg/acre

    Apply 20 kg of nitrogen, potassium and phosphors as the basal dose and remaining 10 kg nitrogen 20 to 25 days and 35 to 40 days after sowing.

    Sowing and quantity of seed:

    Varity                                                          seed for lines                                                    seed for broadcasting

    Corchorus capsularis (White Jute)        7kg/ha or 3kg/acre                                         10kg/ha or 4kg/acre

    Corchorus olitorius (Tossa Jute)           5kg/ha or 2kg/acre                                          7kg/ha or 3kg/acre

     

    Planting geometry:

    • Row to Row distance should be 1ft or 30cm
    • Plant to plant distance 1/2ft or 15cm
    • Sowing can be done on ridges and also flat.

    Irrigation:

    • Jute is required delta water of about 500ml.Jute needs 5 to 6 irrigation to complete its life cycle.
    • Irrigate the field after 3 to 4 weeks or according to the climatic conditions and crop requirement.

    Eradication of weeds:

    • Weeds compete with the crop for light, water, space, and nutrients so their control should be necessary.
    • To control the weeds 2 hand weeding should be done 1st 20 to 25 days after sowing and 2nd 35 to 40 days after sowing.
    • Pre –emergence herbicide Fluchloralin at the rate 1.5kg/ha or 0.6kg/acre used if the chance of more weed infestation.

    Harvesting:

    Harvesting is done from 100 to 130 days after sowing. Plants are left in the field form 3-4 days for leaf shedding. Harvesting should be started in October when the flowers are shed. Harvesting on the proper time gives good quality of fiber.

    Procedure for cutting:

    Plant of jute has the height of about 8-14 ft. cut the plant from the end of stem; in the flooded soils plants should be uprooted. After that bundles are made.

    Production:

    If we used this advanced technology than we should be able to get the 40-45 t /ha or 16-20 t/acre jute.

    Procedure of extraction of fiber from jute:

    In the jute plant the fiber is just beneath of the bark and around the woody or hard stem.

    To extract the fiber the retting process is done.

    Retting process has following steps

    Chart

    Bundle stalk

    After the harvesting the crop when all the leaves should be shed down the bundles are made for easiness of the next processes.

    Retting

    After making the bundles, these bundles are dipped in to water of depth 60-100cm for 8-30 days.

    Stripping

    • In this step fiber is separated from the plant according to these principles.
    • Take the one plant and separate the fiber from it.
    • Take the bundle of 3-5 plants and fiber is separated.
    • Breakdown the plants from the center and fiber is separated in this way.

    Washing and squeezing

    The fiber is washed with clean water. If the fiber contain stains then dipped it in tamarind water for 15-20 mints and then washed it with clean water.

    After washing the fiber is hanging for squeezing the water.

    Packing and storing

    When all of these steps completed properly then the fiber should be used or packed according to their grade and store in the proper way in proper place.

    In the Agriculture University Faisalabad cultivation is done on experimental bases for a long period of time under crop seed and weed museum which proves that jute not only cultivate in Pakistan with good seed and proper Agronomical practices and principals but also got the fiber of fine quality.

    And needs of the country should be fulfill by this fiber and it should be released the pressure from the cotton crop which is badly effected by insects, pest and diseases.

    For more information please contact

    Imran Ramzna

    B.Sc. (Hons) Agricultural Sciences

    Department of Agronomy,

    University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan

    E-mail: imranassi22@gmail.com

    Authors: 

    Imran Ramzan*, Arslan Shehroz1, Muhamamd Zunair Latif2.

    * Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture Faisalabad. 1&2 Co-author Department of Plant pathology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad.

    E-mail: imranassi22@gmail.com

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