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Classification of crops according to their Physiological and Biochemical Characterization




  • classification of cropsMode of Photosynthesis

    C3 Plants or Insufficient Plants

    During the Photosynthesis some plants fix CO2 and form the three carbons Molecule, 3 phosphoglyceric Acid (3PGA). Usually plants of this Category fallow the Calvin Cycle for CO2 assimilation.

    Such Plants can’t use the water, light and resources efficiently so these are called insufficient plants.

    Examples: Wheat, Oat, Rice, Soyabean, Banana, Cotton and rye.

    C4 Plants or sufficient Plants

    In these plants the first fix the CO2 and form the four carbon molecule during the photosynthesis. Usually these fallow the Hatch and Slack pathway of assimilation of CO2.

    These do not exhibit the photorespiration so far they are the efficient in the use of water, light and resources.

    Examples: Sugarcane, Sorghum, Maize

    CAM Plants (Crassulation Acid Metabolism)

    They fix the CO2 as the C4 But fixation of CO2 occur during the night they open the stomata duriong the night.

    Examples: Pineapple, Pickly pear.

    Mode of Propagation

    Sexually Propagated Plants 

    These plants are propagated through the seed.

    Example: Wheat, Barley, Rice, Cotton, Maize, Sorghum

    Asexually or Vegetative Propagated Plants

    Those plants which are propagated through asexually using some specialized parts of plants

    Example: Sugarcane, Potato, Garlic, Some fruits and ornamental plants

    Mode of Pollination

    Self-Pollinated plants

    Those plants in which the pollen from one anther is transferred to the stigma of the same plant

    Example: Wheat, Barley, Rice, Soybean, Sorghum

    Cross-pollinated Plants

    In these plants pollen from one plant is transferred by the insect, wind or any other mean to the stigma of another plant.

    Example: Maize, Brassicas, Sunflower

    Growth Habits

    Determinate Plants

    Those plants which initiate their reproductive stage after the completing of the vegetative growth

    Example:  Wheat, Barley, Rice

    Indeterminate Plants

    In these Plants Vegetative and reproductive stages continue simultaneously

    Example: Tomato, Okra, eggplant, Cucumber, Watermelon, Cotton.

    Photo period

    Long Day Plants

    Those plants which change from vegetative stage to reproductive stage by producing flowers and fruits when the days become longer

    Example: Wheat, Barley, Oat, Gram

    Short Day Plants

    Those plants which change from vegetative stage to reproductive stage by producing flowers and fruits when the days become shorter

    Examples:  Rice, Soybean.

    Day Neutral Plants

    Those whose initiation of the flowering is not effected by day length

    Tomato, Cucumber, Maize

    Root System

    Tap Root

    A taproot system is one in which the primary root becomes the main root of the plant with minimal branching consisting of secondary, smaller lateral roots. The taproot system occurs in dicot plants

    Example: Gram, Pea, Sarsoon, Cotton, soybean,

    Fibrous Root

    fibrous root system (sometimes also called adventitious root system) is usually formed by thin, moderately branching roots growing from the stem. A fibrous root system is universal in monocotyledonous plants

    Example: Wheat, Rice, Maize, Sugarcane, Sorghum

    Seed Classification

    Monocotyledon seed plants

    The plants have only one cotyledon in their seed

    Example: Rice, Wheat, Maize, Sugarcane, Sorghum

    Dicotyledonous Plants

    Those plants whose have two cotyledon in their seed

       Example: Gram, pea, reddish, potato, pumpkin, coriander, spinach, coffee, cotton, sunflower, soybeans

    Mode of Germination

    Epigeal Germination

    In this type of germination seed/ Cotyledon emerge out of the soil or above the soil

                 Examples: Cotton, Gram, Soybean,

                  Hypogeal Germination

    In this type of germination seed/ Cotyledon remain in the soil or below the soil

    Example: Wheat, Rice, Maize and Monocots

    Author: Imran Ramzan*, Arslan Shehroz1, Muhamamd Zunair Latif2,

    Author * Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture Faisalabad

    1&2 Co-author Department of Plant pathology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad

    E-mail: imranassi22@gmail.com

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