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Botanical description of Wheat and its production in Pakistan




  • Botanical name:Triticum aestivum

    English name:   Wheat

    Common name: Gandum

    Family name:     Poaceae

    Introduction:

    As a food, wheat, is the most important crop in all over the world which contain a number of proteins, vitamins, calories and minerals. It has been a staple food for severalyears(approximately 8000 years) in the whole world specially in Asian countries, Europe and in  north Africa.  Wheat crop is well adapted to that climate which have latitudeof 32 and 61 degree north while 28 and 40 degree south. The optimum temperature which is required for growth and development  of wheat crop is about 25-30’C.

    Botanical description:

    Wheat plant have two types of root system. One is called seminal root system while other is clonal root system. The entire roots of wheat plant are adventitious and then plant have a permanent root system. After the 28-30 days of seedling emergence,  seminal roots dry. The stem of wheat plant is erect, cylindrical and placed near to the ground known as tiller or primary tiller. Leave of the wheat plant have two parts: one is called sheath and other is blade. The inflorescence of wheat plant is known as spike or it is also called as ear. Each spikelet contain stamen, pistil, and ovary. The wheat seed is called as caryopsis( the seed coat fused with pericarp is known as caryopsis). The grain of wheat plant contain starch and gluten.

    Growth stages:

    There are several growth stages of wheat plant that are:

    • Pre-emergence
    • Emergence
    • Vegetative
    • Growth of roots
    • Formation of tillers
    • Stage of jointing
    • Reproductive
    • Maturity

    Types of wheat:

    There are two main types of wheat:

    • Vulgare
    • Durum

    Vulgare:

    It is widely cultivated in all over the world and it is used for the formation of common bread.

    Durum:

    It is used for making suji.

    Favorable Conditions for Wheat production:

    1-Temperature and relative humidity:

    Wheat is a temperate crop which required a normal range of heat and moisture.  It is mostly sown in end of October and mid of November for better yield.  The optimum temperature which is required  between 25-30 degree C but at the harvesting stage the wheat plant requires a high temperature that varies between 35-50 degree C. This temperature helps the plant in ripening of grains.

    2-Water requirement:

    For the cultivation of wheat crop, the minimum rainfall which is required during the growing season is 20”. It should not exceed 40”.  But in Pakistan the average of rainfall is less than 20” which is not sufficient for wheat crop production. Therefore, mostly irrigation method is used for the production of wheat crop plant. And  the production of wheat crop in irrigated area is always higher than the barani areas.

    3-Soil requirement:

    Wheat crop required well drained loam soil.

    Wheatproduction  in Pakistan:

    Pakistan is one of the largest wheat producer country which ranked 9th number in all over the world. Wheat is the  staple diet for the people of Pakistan as it constitute 70% of the daily diet of a man. About 9.15 million hectare area is under cultivation of wheat and production from this place is 25 million ton. Wheat contributes about 3.2% to GDP.  In 2012-2013, The state bank of Pakistan reported that country produces about 25 million ton of wheat from an area of 9 million hectares.

    Wheat is grown in all provinces of Pakistan. About 76% wheat is cultivated in Punjab, 17% in Sindh, 4% in KPK, and 3% in Balochistan.  The average production of wheat in Sindh is close to 25 mound per acre.

    The wheat divisions in Punjab are:

    • Sargodha
    • Faisalabad
    • Multan
    • Dera ghazi khan
    • Bahawalpur
    • Lahore
    • Sahiwal
    • Shsikhupur
    • Sialkot

    The wheat growing areas in Sindh are:

    • Kabul
    • Kurram river
    • Gomal river
    • Nawabshah
    • Tharparker
    • Hyderabad
    • Khairpur

    The growing areas of wheat crop in KPK is:

    • Mardan
    • Peshawar
    • Bannu

    Written By:

    Saljok Ahsan

    Hafiz Muhammad Asif

    Lissan Ullah

    Department of Agronomy

    University of Agriculture, Faisalabad

     

     

     

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