The total area of Pakistan is 79.6 Million hectares and the cultivated area is about 27% and out of this 27% the 80% area is irrigated. Pakistan is agriculture country about 66% people of Pakistan depend on agriculture, Pakistan lies b/w latitudes 24-37 N and longitudes 61-76 E, If we talking about climate is temperate sub-humid to humid climate with temperature mean minimum 4 c during December and January to maximum of 38 c during June and July. In common saying Pakistan is mini world.
The classification of the Agro-Ecological zone of Pakistan on the base of climate, land use and water use .Pakistan has 10 (AEZ) these are following,
- Indus delta
- Southern irrigation plain
- Sandy desert
- Northern irrigation plain
- Barani lands
- Wet mountains
- Northern dry mountains
- Western dry mountains
- Dry western plateau
- Sulaiman piedmont
If we talking about the Indus delta it’s contains/comprises districts of Thatt, Badin and Hyderabad. The annual rainfall is ranging between (125-250 mm) and type of soil is clay and silt. Climate is arid tropical marine with hot summer to mild winter. The main crops of the Indus delta are sugarcane, rice and pulses.
B-Southern irrigation plain:
It comprise the districts of Tharparkar, Sanghar, Dadu, Kahirpur, Larkana, Nawabshah, Jaccobadad, Sukar, Shikarpur, Sibi and Rahim yar khan. Annual rainfall less than (125mm and increases to 250mm) and soil type silt loam and silty clay.Climate arid sub tropical continental with hot summer and mild winter.The main crops are rice in summer and wheat in winter.
C-Sandy desert :
It includes districts of Bahawalnagar, Rahim yar khan, Tharparkar, Sanghar, Muzaffargarh, Nawabshah, Mianwali and Sargodha. Annual rainfall is between (125-250mm) and soil type loam and sandy loam. Climate summer is very hot winter is very cool. The main crops are wheat, caster, millet and guar.
D-Northern irrigation plains:
This includes Bahawalnagar, Rahimyar khan, Multan, Vehari, Sahiwal, Lahore, Faisalabad, Jhang, Chiniot, Gujranwala, Sargodha, and Gujrat. And Also includes Peshawar and Mardan. Rainfall ranges between (125mm to 500mm) and soil type loam, loam-clay and sandy. Climate is semi arid to arid. The main crops are cotton, sugarcane, maize, and wheat. And in Peshawar and Mardan Wheat and Barseem is cultivated.
Barani land consist of districts of D.I khan, Bannu, Minawali, Talagang, Attock, Abbotabad, Rawalpindi, Chakwal, Jhelum, Gujrat and Sialkot. Annual rainfall ranges from (1000mm in north-East and 200mm in South-West) soils different type of soils. Climate with foot of mountain is nearly to humid with hot summer and cool winter while southern part sami-arid.the main crops are Maize, wheat (areas where rainfall above 700mm) Millets, Sorghum, Gram and Lentils (where rainfall less than 500mm)
It includes districts of Rawalpindi, Hazara and Mensehra. Annual rainfall (1000-3000mm) the soil is silty clays and clay loam. Climate is undifferentiated because it contain/comprise of mountain and plateaus. The main crops are maize, wheat and rice.
G-Northern Dry Mountain:
It includes Chitral, Dir, Swat, Malakand, Mohmend Agency, Khyber and Trible areas of Peshawar and Kohat. Annual rainfall is ranges between (300-1000mm) Soil types are deep and clayey. Climate summer is mild and winter is cold. The main crops are maize, wheat, and fodders.
H-Western dry mountains
If we talking about northern dry mountains it consist districts of Kohat, Bannu, North and South Waziristan, Zhob, Loralai, Kalat, Sibi, Quetta and Karachi. Annual rainfall ranges (125mm south west to 500mm in North) Soil type is deep and loam. Climate is mild summer and cold winter. The main crops are Wheat, Maize and fodders.
I-Dry Western Plateau:
Its comprise Karachi, Dadu, Mekran, Kharan, Chagai and Lasbella. Annual Rainfall (50-200mm) Soil types are calcareous silt loam. Climate is Arid tropical with constantly Dry season. The main crops are Wheat, Millet, Maize, and Sorghum.
Its include D.I Khan, D.G khan and Karachi. The annual rain fall is (125-250mm) Climate is arid and hot. Main crops are Wheat, Millet and Gram.
Hence, these all zones play important role in agriculture point of view. These zones affects the cropping pattern and cropping schemes of different districts and areas because every zone have different climatic condition and soil so different crops are being successfully raised according to the environmental, soil and market value of respected area according to the market need. So we have to choose a crop to be grown by keeping in mind the fact in which we have to grow this crop what is its climatic and soil requirement and what is conditions available in agro ecological zone where we want to grow that crop.
Written by: Mohammad Waqas hameed, Shair shahbaz,Aqib hussain sial