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# Agri Engineering

• ## Water resources of Pakistan under current changing climatic scenario

Climate is an important force in driving the agricultural productivity of a particular area either d…

• ## Water Conservation in the Pakistan

Nature is very kind to every living organism. It bestows a lot of things to all liv…

• ## Every drop counts for crop production

Every living organism requires water for its sustainable development and survival. Unfortunately, da…

## Difference between Plane and Geodetic Surveying

Plane Surveying Geodetic Surveying Curvature of the earth is not taken in to consideration In this curvature of earth is considered. In plane Surveying, line joining any two points of triangle formed by any three points is considered as straight line and plane triangle are assumed to be plane angles. …

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## Instruments used in Surveying

Instruments Used for Measuring Distance: 1. Chain  Metric chain Steel band chain Günter’s Chain Revenue Chain Engineers chain 2. Arrows (chain pins) 3. Tapes Cloth or linen Tape Metric Woven Metallic Tape Metric steel Tape Invar tape. Synthetic Tape. Wooden pegs. 5. Ranging Road. 6. Ranging Poles. 7. Offset Rod. …

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## Instruments for Setting out Right Angles

Cross staff: The cross staff is used for a) Finding out foot of the perpendicular from a given point to a lineb) Setting right angle at a given point on a line There are three forms of cross staff Open cross staff The French and The Adjustable Optional Square Prism square, …

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## Method of Measuring Distance

Direct Method of Measuring Distance. Competitive Method Direct Method of Measuring Distance  1. Pacing: Where approximate result is required, distance may be determined pacing. This method is used for reconnaissance survey, for preparation of military plans. Also used for approximate checking distance. The method consists of walking over a line and …

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## Ranging out Survey Line

In measuring the length of a survey line called chain line, it is necessary that the chain should be laid out on the ground in a straight line between the end stations. Ranging: “The process of establishing intermediate point on a straight line between two end points is known as …

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## Chain Survey

Chain survey is the simplest method of surveying. In this survey only measurements are taken in the field, and the rest work, such as plotting calculation etc. are done in the office. This is most suitable adapted to small plane areas with very few details. If carefully done, it gives …

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## Cross Staff Survey

This type of survey is undertaken to locate boundaries of a field or a field or plat and determinations of its area. Principle: The principle of the survey is to divide the given area in to no of right angled triangles and trapezoids and to calculate and plot the areas …

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## Plane Table Surveying

Plane table is a graphical method of surveying in which the field works and the plotting is done simultaneously. It is particularly adopting in small mapping. Plane table surveying is used for locating the field computation of area of field. Merits: It is most suitable for preparing small scale map …

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## Introduction to Surveying

Surveying: It is the art of determining the relative positions of different object on the surface of the earth by measuring the horizontal distance between them and by preparing a map to any suitable scale. Thus, in this process, the measurements are taken only in the horizontal plane. Leveling: Leveling …

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## Object, Use & Principles of Surveying

Objects of surveying: The primary object of survey is the preparation of plan estate or buildings roads, railways, pipelines, canals, etc. Or to measure area of field, state, nation. Object of geodetic surveying is to determine precise positions on the surface of the earth of widely distant points. Uses of …

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